[ Read ePUB ] Why the Allies WonAuthor Richard Overy – Gsagency.co

Richard Overy S Bold Book Begins By Throwing Out The Stock Answers To This Great Question Germany Doomed Itself To Defeat By Fighting A Two Front War The Allies Won By Sheer Weight Of Material Strength In Fact, ByGermany Controlled Almost The Entire Resources Of Continental Europe And Was Poised To Move Into The Middle East The Soviet Union Had Lost The Heart Of Its Industry, And The United States Was Not Yet ArmedThe Allied Victory InWas Not Inevitable Overy Shows Us Exactly How The Allies Regained Military Superiority And Why They Were Able To Do It He Recounts The Decisive Campaigns The War At Sea, The Crucial Battles On The Eastern Front, The Air War, And The Vast Amphibious Assault On Europe He Then Explores The Deeper Factors Affecting Military Success And Failure Industrial Strength, Fighting Ability, The Quality Of Leadership, And The Moral Dimensions Of The War


10 thoughts on “Why the Allies Won

  1. says:

    Letto tutto d un fiato, posso confermare le ottime recensioni qui presenti.Saggio estremamente dettagliato e di ampio ampissimo respiro, documentatissimo ma anche notevolmente lucido nelle analisi Non una storia della II GM, ma piuttosto una puntigliosa critica analitica del suo sviluppo militare e dei riflessi socio economici che questi comportarono sui paesi interessati da qui nasce la banale domanda che Overy si fa fin dal titolo, ossia perch gli Alleati vinsero la guerra e viceversa perch non la persero.La risposta ovvia, e altrettanto banale, che gli Alleati non potevano perdere una guerra moderna, fatta di freddi numeri e statistiche di produttivit , in cui erano in smisurato vantaggio Questo, che e rimane senza dubbio vero, lo si dice per col famoso e fuorviante senno di poi A un certo punto, suppergi intorno al 40 41 42 la vittoria alleata era tutt altro che sicura Coi tedeschi a due passi da Mosca e, insieme agli italiani, a quattro passi dal canale di Suez e coi giapponesi dilaganti nel Sud Est asiatico privo di difesa e coi mercantili anglo americani affondati a mucchi nell Atlantico Qui Overy ci elenca le peculiarit che resero possibili la resistenza e la controffensiva, che sar devastante maggiore organizzazione e razionalizzazione logistica nella produzione industriale in serie come nell utilizzo di materie prime e nuove tecnologie , leadership migliore attraverso creazioni di stati maggiori manageriali di grande dimensione, competenza specialistica e snellezza burocratica , vantaggio morale indubbio, e fondamentale sul fronte interno.Poi ci sono i numeri, brutali e inappellabili se la GB da sola non aveva la minima possibilit di vincere la guerra, quando i tedeschi inopinatamente attaccano la Russia e non riescono a piegarla del tutto con una guerra lampo, sul piatto della bilancia alleato viene a posarsi il gigantesco peso sovietico che, credo io, sarebbe stato sufficiente da solo a sconfiggere i tedeschi che la fa immediatamente e nettamente pendere dalla loro parte quando poi entrano in campo gli USA, potremo dire che si ribalta il tavolo.Curioso il caso degli USA, prima potenza economica del mondo e principale forza navale mondiale ma, nel 39 40, addirittura insignificanti dal punto di vista militare, ma che pag 478 del libro erano passati nel 45 a dodici milioni di uomini nelle forze armate, pi di 70 mila unit navali e almeno 73 mila aerei Cifre pazzesche.Ecco, Overy anche giustamente ci dice di diffidare dai numeri, che da soli non riescono a spiegare un fatto complesso come vincere o perdere una guerra di tali dimensioni E vero L innovazione, la capacit di improvvisare nel pieno della crisi, la resilienza industriale ma anche morale , la gestione produttiva e strategica furono senza dubbio aspetti fondamentali che spiegano perch gli Alleati vinsero, ma senza dubbio i freddi numeri sulla produttivit industriale sovietica e ancora di pi americana parlano pi di intere biblioteche.Negli anni del conflitto i giapponesi riescono a produrre 7 portarei gli americani, nello stesso periodo, ne varano 90 novanta.Per l Asse vincere la guerra divenne quasi proibitivo nel momento in cui entr in scena anche l URSS che, pur se impreparata e indebolita dalle purghe staliniane, possedeva risorse umani e industriali, nonch tecnologiche, tali da travolgere inevitabilmente il nemico alla lunga Nel momento in cui gli americani passano dal ruolo passivo di fornitori al ruolo attivo di cobelligeranti, poi, la situazione diventa assolutamente impari Un paradosso notevole quello tedesco La figura di Hitler assolutamente centrale, soprattutto perch senza la sua figura sarebbe stato impensabile l innesco della guerra che, stavolta veramente, nessuno voleva visto lo spaventoso e ancora fresco ricordo dei massacri della Grande Guerra tuttavia la sua guida si rivel totalmente deleteria per la condotta militare del conflitto, continuamente condita di tremendi errori strategici Ci nonostante resta sbalorditivo come l esercito tedesco sia riuscito a reggere, praticamente da solo, per quasi 5 anni un conflitto di queste dimensioni contro colossi del genere Nessun altro paese al mondo, con l esclusione degli USA e qualunque cosa si pensi dei tedeschi, avrebbe potuto resistere nello spaventoso logorio umano e materiale del fronte orientale I tedeschi ieri, oggi e penso domani mi atterriscono e mi stupiscono insieme, negativamente e positivamente, e non riesco a farmene una idea generale che mi soddisfi in pieno ogni tanto mi chiedo se, ancora oggi, siano la massima risorsa o il massimo pericolo del continente Anche la guerra giapponese paradossale Un paese con una industria, all epoca, di piccole dimensioni di parecchio inferiore a quella italiana, per dire che riesce con la pura forza di un esercito disciplinatissimo oltre i limiti del fanatismo e di una sola forza armata su tre la marina di idonee dimensioni, a fagocitare letteralmente tutta l Asia del Sud Est.Rimane l Italia, buttata in una guerra assolutamente non gradita dalla popolazione a un livello di impreparazione tale da ritenere criminale, anche solo e esclusivamente per quello, chiunque la volle, da Mussolini e Vittorio Emanuele, che al solito tacque e lasci fare in gi Casta militare compresa Resta il fatto, come Overy nota molto bene, che alla fine l unico vero e assoluto vincitore della guerra furono gli USA, che si rivelarono per quello che sono ancora oggi la pi grande potenza militare e economica che si sia mai vista al mondo L URSS, i cui sacrifici furono di gran lunga i maggiori fra tutti quelli patiti dalle nazioni in campo, ottenne di riflesso con la vittoria anche l obbligo di bere la coppa avvelenata del duello a distanza con gli americani per l egemonia mondiale, che si rivel alla fine letale per la sua stessa esistenza La GB perse l impero, entr in una spirale economica declinante salvo rilanciarsi dagli anni 80 in poi come villaggio globale della finanza mondiale finch dura e avamposto americano in Europa Viceversa Germania Giappone e Italia vissero un incredibile boom economico che le trasform nel giro di 20 anni in grandi potenze industriali.Credo che noi europei occidentali dovremo dire mille volte grazie ai russi Fu principalmente col loro sangue e con i loro sacrifici che fascismo e soprattutto nazismo vennero sconfitti e fu ancora dalla loro oppressione durante la dittatura sovietica post bellica che nacque in occidente lo spauracchio comunista, in risposta del quale gli stati europei col beneplacito americano diedero definitivamente il l a quella straordinaria conquista che fu la socialdemocrazia e lo stato sociale, ovviamente E ringraziamo pure gli americani, di cui siamo certamente obbeddienti e proni vassalli, per la settantennale pace che hanno finora assicurato in Europa loro e esclusivamente loro, via NATO Critichiamo giustamente il loro dominio assoluto e spesso deleterio, soprattutto in campo culturale ma non dimentichiamo nemmeno che lo sviluppo pacifico europeo dovuto prevalentemente alla loro presenza nel continente e al loro ruolo di mediatori e padri padroni.Se se ne tornassero oltreoceano domani, onestamente la vedrei molto grigia.


  2. says:

    We know that the allies won the war but was this always on the cards This book explores the underlying themes of the war in terms of production, leadership, morale, morals and the like It argues that whilst the outcome was often in question during the dark days of 1940 and 1941, ultimately the sheer weight of the allies economies would prevail That is not to say that the war was not a challenge, it was difficult to meld the efforts of the three principal allies sorry France , each with its own objectives and political culture, across disparate theatres of war.The sheer might of US industry and Russian manpower meant that the war was efectively lost when the Wehrmacht failed to take Moscow in 41 This was not helped by the patent idiocy of Hitler declaring war on the US to show solidarity with a feeble Japanese ally, nor by his micromanagement of the war effort An interesting read about the logistics of war rather than a direct narrative of the battlefield War for accountants perhaps Enjoyable.


  3. says:

    Excellent book Not only does it shatter quite a few myths, it also answer the key question that is often regarded as obvious why the allies won, really Each chapter is very informative and interesting and the book as a whole, I think, is a must as a gateway to the second world war.


  4. says:

    Just as the title indicates, this is a thorough examination of how WWII, the outcome of which was decidedly uncertain before late 1943 or so, ended the way it did Overy is a masterful and convincing historian, who over the course of 330 pages lays out a cogent argument based on everything from economy and materiel production to the warped philosophy of the Axis powers It s impossible to distill the mass of fascinating information into a paragraph, but there are a few main points that especially ring true.The first is, of course, the industrial production of the USA and USSR, unmatched by any of the Axis powers Overy argues that America s capitalist society and the Soviet centralized dictatorship where ideally suited to maximize their vast resources, while Hitler s less focused, competitive dictatorship failed to make the most of Germany s limited resources A telling example is when Hitler s armies took Soviet oil fields, but then had no engineers to make the oil available to Germany, so it made no change in their production Overy further argues that the Allied powers made simple, reliable, mass produced weapons, and kept a healthy ratio of mechanics on hand The opposite was true of the Germany industrial complex, which was fixated on ever newer technologies, so obsolescence and difficulty of repair became issues as the war progressed Overy concludes that even Germany s much vaunted missile program, which was inarguably years ahead of anything the Allies had, was a lost cause for these reasons impressive, yes, but not a war winner.The second main theme is the rapid learning curve of the allied powers, who learned from their many early defeats and focused intently on producing only what was needed to win The Germans and Japanese, by contrast, had a very slow learning curve, and coasted on early victories, believing that their militaristic will to power philosophy made victory a foregone conclusion This learning curve extended to every facet of the war improvements in bombing, defense, codes, and so on ensured the Allies early losses were not often repeated.The final main theme that run through the whole book, though it s not made as explicit as the others, is the mindset of the various leaders Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin had many philosophical and strategical differences, but were able to work in lock step for the single goal of destroying Nazism utterly Hitler had no such restraint, unable to maintain even the farce of an alliance with Stalin until the war in the west had been concluded Stalin, for all his faults, promoted reliable men, wanted to hear the unvarnished truth about how the war was progressing, and allowed himself to be overruled when it came to important strategic decisions Hitler, famously, removed officers who told him bad news and insisted on micro managing the war Perhaps the best example of how much this hurt Germany was Hitler s insistence on treating the Normandy landings lightly, thinking they were only a ruse, until it was far too late In all, this is an inexhaustibly fascinating book, one sure to promote argument among WWII buffs for its calm, reasoned analysis and sometimes unexpected conclusions.


  5. says:

    It is amazing that Overy can write one medium sized book that makes one rethink WWII This is a high level strategic look at the war, but still concrete and specific sometimes tactical details had strategic consequences Here is a sampling of Overy s arguments.Everyone knows that the Allies had the advantage in industrial capability, but Overy points out that that was only one factor among many Germany actually had the industrial advantage throughout 1941 but did not capitalize on it Paradoxically, the Germans were handicapped because industry was subordinated to the Army Officers kept demanding new designs with the latest updates, resulting in small production runs and constant logistics and maintenance problems No new German aircraft design during the war was a strategic success In contrast, the Russian and American industrial organizers made decent designs in the huge quantities required to win the war.The greatest miracle of the war was the Russian evacuation of their heavy industry ahead of the German invasion Without that, they could not have carried on the war It was Bolshevism that gave them the ability the Communist government had a couple decades of experience controlling heavy industry from Moscow, so they knew what had to be done And Stalin s personality cult gave Russia the necessary unity of purpose.The German and Japanese warrior ethos actually worked against them They sent all their efficient staff officers to the front instead of using them as staffers The Allies valued and used good staff officers The Americans could make top commanders out of soldiers who had never seen combat Marshall and Eisenhower.The Anglo American bombing campaign was one of the key factors in winning the war It drew the Luftwaffe into a war of attrition they could not win, thus ensuring that the lodgement in Normandy could be defended.The war was mostly against Germany 85% of the American effort was expended in Europe, and only 15% in the Pacific The industrial bases of Italy and Japan were very limited compared to Germany or the Allies, of course And Hitler was particularly hated, even before the war, even though it was Japan and Italy who had actually embarked on wars of conquest, and even though the full murderousness of Naziism was not yet known The peculiar barbarity and odiousness of his doctrines made a difference.


  6. says:

    Conferma e Negazione di una teoria Basta avere un PIL pi forte del nemico per vincere la Guerra Aiuta, vero, ma non sufficiente, vedi Vietnam o Afganistan, se non supportato da una volont morale di combattere e, in secondo luogo, da una catena di comando eccellente Paradossalmente, per la vulgata comune questo fu ottenuto dalle democreazie occidentali e dai Russi ma non dai tedeschi il cui caporale boemo come lo definiva Hindemburg aveva il vizio di entrare troppo nei dettagli tecnici che non conoscevaMi ha colpito un patragrafo i tedeschi si stavano gi preparando alla guerra degli anni 50 missili, Jet etc peccato che nel frattempo non costruivano le armi per il conflitto che stavano combattendo.Un appunto qualche tabella in pi avrebbe fatto comodo.


  7. says:

    An excellent book, and one that makes you think Virtually every paragraph Overy writes could be expanded into an essay of its own, or indeed a whole other book Overy s synthesis of the voluminous archive material is simply masterful, and he cuts through the fog of war, and the conflicting analysis of the war, with lucid prose and convincing arguments While I m no expert, I ve read a lot about WWII, and I find much of his argument persuasive If you re looking for a book explaining why the Allies won not how, but why you can t go wrong here.I reviewed this book on my blog back in December, 2007 Read here


  8. says:

    A decent succinct view of why the Allies defeated Nazi Germany and Japan Covers everything from the economics of mass production of weapons to the morality of the Allies reasons for fighting Hitler.


  9. says:

    This is a really good book that I enjoyed a great deal You can tell the author is an academic, because this is one big and superbly written compare and contrast essay on WWII, where the Axis is measured to the Allies and found totally wanting Overy goes over most of the important factors in the war and shows you that in all areas save Tactics and in a few cases Equipment, the Allies were superior to the Axis and usually by a wide margin And yet the war was a damn close run thing , that required all the efforts of all the Allies, flat out , for 6 years.While this is is not, and does not claim to be, a full history of the war itself, it s a good single volume for anyone who wants to understand the basics and why the results were what they were Overy goes for the most important choke points of the war events like The Battle of the Atlantic, Stalingrad, the Bomber campaigns, and D Day, among others, and relates how and why they impacted the war He goes into the Chasm between the sides politically, economically and industrially and how that played out He also goes into the moral differences in the combatant, and the total racial war waged on the OstFront As a real expert on Soviet History, he s one of the better sources to read about the moral ambiguity of Soviet Authoritarianism in a death grip with Fascist Authoritarianism Its riveting stuff.The junior reader will be well served by tackling this tome as it is really good at bringing order to one s view of the War that made the modern world The writing is not adult for most For the Gamer Modeller Military enthusiast, this is a GREAT book for background, but not a contributor to Scenarios Dioramas On the other hand, it will really help the reader to understand why moves were made and how the military events impacted the political and cultural legacy we live now A strong recommendation for any reader.


  10. says:

    In 1942, the Axis Powers of World War II seemed on the verge of winning the war in 1945, they lost, and the Allied Powers won What happened The most important reason was the capacity of the Soviet people to sacrifice everything, evacuate and recreate industrial infrastructure in unoccupied Ural, Siberia, Volga valley and Central Asia, continue producing tanks, airplanes and other weapons, and keep fighting To what extent this sacrifice was voluntary, and to what done at gunpoint is really beside the point The second most important reason was the enormous industrial capacity of the United States switching to war production In 1943, Japanese shipyards produced 3 aircraft carriers, and in 1944, 4 American shipyards produced 90 in these years Mass production, used so successfully for making cars before the war, was adapted to making bomber aircraft and cargo Liberty ships The Allies also made better use of technology A modern Russian handbook for high school history teachers became famous for calling Stalin an effective manager The real effective manager of the war was Albert Speer, the Reich Minister of Armaments by 1944, he reduced 42 aircraft models to 5, 151 trucks to 23, a dozen anti tank weapons to 1, and so on for all weapons However, this was too late, when Germany was already losing the war lack of spare parts and trained mechanics plagued the Wehrmacht In contrast, the Soviets had 2 main models of tanks and 5 main models of aircraft When they realized that they were losing the war with ordinary weapons, the Germans tried to win it with futuristic weapons jet fighters, ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, while lacking banal trucks The Americans only had one futuristic weapon, the atomic bomb, and the Soviets had none after the war, the Americans whisked away German weaponeers such as Wernher von Braun and Hans von Ohain to make Cold War weapons for them.One chapter I found very interesting was about the Allied bomber offensive It failed to terrorize the German people into surrendering, and it failed to stop the increase in German war production What it succeeded in doing was drawing the resources away first from the Eastern Front, and later also from the Western Front In 1943 1944, German aircraft production switched to fighters from bombers, and 2 3 of German fighters were fighting Anglo American bombers, allowing the gigantic battles on the Eastern Front to proceed without German bombing The 88mm gun was very effective at destroying Soviet tanks instead, 3 4 of them were aimed at Anglo American bombers All in all, in 1944 direct destruction of industry and diversion of manpower and resources to anti aircraft defense together cost the Germans approximately half of their battlefront weapons and equipment If this wasn t another front in the war, what was it There are also chapters on the Battle of Stalingrad, the Battle of Kursk, the invasion of France, wartime diplomacy, Allied and Axis leadership, but there are already hundreds of books on these topics I think the most interesting chapters are about the war of economies and the war of technologies.